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Halachically Speaking: Tefillah When Davening Alone | Rabbi Moishe Dovid Lebovits

Unfortunately, most of us find ourselves davening alone during these trying times. There are certain halachos we need to know about davening alone at home.

So many people have questions regarding davening alone. This shows that tefillah b’tzibbur is such an integral part of our day that we’re not familiar with the halachos that apply to one who davens alone.1

A person davening at home does not have time constraints, especially if he is not traveling to and from shul. Therefore, he should daven slowly and perhaps say korbanos, which he might not usually have time to say.

Clothing for Davening

Aside from the fact that we are currently davening at home, many of us are also working at home. We may prefer to wear more comfortable clothing throughout the day. Some people might even want to wear pajamas or sportswear. May one wear this clothing when davening?

The Gemara in Shabbos2 states that different chachamim performed certain activities as a preparation for davening. This is based on the pasuk, “One should prepare before calling to your G-d.”3 Many preparations must be conducted before one can daven properly.

One should not daven without socks,4 even if he is wearing slippers5 or Crocs. Wearing an untucked shirt shows a lack of respect for davening. Short-sleeved shirts and pants6 should not be worn while davening, since one would not wear this sort of attire when meeting an important person. In a place where the custom is to wear short sleeves in front of important people, one may wear them for davening.7

When one is davening alone on Shabbos, he should wear whatever he would normally would wear on Shabbos, such as a hat and suit.

Set Place for Davening

The Gemara in Berachos8 says that “whoever9 has a set place for davening [merits] that the G-d of Avraham will be with him.”10 This is mentioned in the Shulchan Aruch11 and all of the poskim.12 The Gemara in Berachos13 says “one who has a set place to daven makes his enemies fall beneath him.” The Orchos Yosher says one should be very careful to keep this halachah.14

If one is davening at home he should have a set place to daven as well.15

Davening in Front of a Mirror

When one is davening at home, there may be mirrors in the area where he chooses to daven. Is this permitted?

One is not allowed to daven Shemoneh Esrei16 opposite a mirror.17 One will not be able to concentrate, and in addition it looks as if one is bowing down to himself.18 One is also not allowed to daven opposite a glass object if he can see his reflection,19 but if he has no choice, he may close his eyes.20 Some suggest that one is permitted to close his eyes in a situation where he has to daven opposite a mirror or glass.21 If one is able to see his image when standing in front of marble he should not daven in front of it.22

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Colorful Garments

One should not daven opposite colorful garments since they distract one from davening properly.24 Based on this, one should be careful not to daven while facing something that will cause him not to focus on davening.25

Davening in Other Languages

Can one who is davening alone daven in a language other than lashon kodesh?26 The Shulchan Aruch27 says that one who is davening alone may do so in any language besides for Aramaic.

Baruch She’amar

The Rema28 mentions the custom to stand when reciting Baruch She’amar. The Mishnah Berurah29 mentions that even if one is davening alone, he should stand.

Yishtabach

The Rema30 says that we stand when reciting Yishtabach31. The Ateres Zekeinim32 says that when one is davening alone, he does not have to stand. However, those who are “anshei maaseh” stand both during the week and on Shabbos, even when saying it alone.

Saying Kadosh, Kadosh, Kadosh

When reciting Birchos Krias Shema we say “Kadosh, Kadosh, Kadosh.” There is a discussion in the poskim if we should say this when we are davening alone. According to the Shulchan Aruch, the best option would be to read it with the trup as one does when reading pesukim from the Torah.33 Harav Moshe Feinstein, zt”l, says that if one reads the pesukim with a niggun he may say “Kadosh, Kadosh, Kadosh” as well. The Rema34 says “Kadosh, Kadosh, Kadosh” can be said alone, but the Mishnah Berurah35 says to follow the Shulchan Aruch’s opinion. One can say it in a loud voice just as he would say it when davening with a tzibbur.36

Krias Shema

Some permit one to say “Baruch Shem Kevod” out loud when one davens alone.37

There are 245 words in Krias Shema. In order to bring up the count to 248 words, which correspond to the 248 limbs of the body, the chazzan says “Hashem Elokeichem Emes.” With this, the entire tzibbur fulfills the recitation of 248 words with the chazzan.38 What should one do about this when he is davening alone?

The Rema39 says that one who is davening alone should say “Kel Melech Ne’eman” at the beginning of Krias Shema. In this way he still reaches the count of 248 words.

Davening Out Loud

When one is davening alone he may daven aloud in order to enhance his concentration.40

Three Steps Back at the End of Shemoneh Esrei

One41 should remain standing in place42 until the chazzan reaches Kedushah,43 or at least until he starts chazaras hashatz44 (if the space is limited45). When davening Maariv, one should wait in his place until the chazzan starts Kaddish.46 If one would return to his place right away, it would seem that he wants to daven again (and that his first Shemoneh Esrei was invalid).47

When one is davening alone he should wait in his place until the chazzan begins his repetition of Shemoneh Esrei. This means that if one finishes Shemoneh Esrei and then waits two minutes until the chazzan begins chazaras hashatz, he should wait two minutes before taking his steps forward at the conclusion of his Shemoneh Esrei.48

Tachanun While Alone

After viduy is recited, one says the thirteen middos of Hashem. When saying “Vayikra b’Shem Hashem,” one should be mafsik between “b’Shem” and “Hashem.”49 A person who is davening without a minyan does not recite the thirteen attributes.50

One who is davening alone should say the rest of Tachanun, but not from “V’yavor Hashem al panav” until the end of the thirteen middos.

Many poskim say that Tachanun may only be recited if one is in a place that has a sefer Torah.51

There are many poskim who say that one may recite Tachanun (with one’s head down) even if there is no sefer Torah, as long as there are sefarim in the room.52 Others say Tachanun may only be recited if there is a sefer Torah and that having sefarim in the room is not sufficient. This seems to be the custom.53 According to those who are stringent, Tachanun is recited, but without covering one’s face.54

The custom in the Old City of Yerushalayim is to always recite Tachanun with one’s head down, even if there is no sefer Torah, since the Old City has an abundance of kedushah.55 There is uncertainty among the poskim as to whether this halachah applies to the Yerushalayim of today, since its borders extend well past the Old City.56 The custom to always recite Tachanun with one’s head down only applies to the Old City and does not apply to the rest of Yerushalayim.57

Vehu Rachum

We say Vehu Rachum on Mondays and Thursdays during Tachanun.58 One who is davening alone is allowed to say this as well.59

There is no need to say the Yehi Ratzon that is normally said on Monday and Thursday, since it was only meant to be said when there is leining.60 Kel Erech Apayim is also not said when davening alone.61

Kedushah in Uva L’tzion

One is allowed to say the Kedushah section in Uva L’tzion when davening alone, although the Mishnah Berurah62 mentions it is preferable to say it with the tzibbur.

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Eating before Minchah / Maariv

The Mishnah69 says that one should not start a haircut close70 to Minchah. So too, he should not enter the washroom,71 a tannery,72 start to eat,73 start to judge,74 or begin other activities at that time. The reason is that perhaps he will get involved in these activities and forget to daven.75 This is mentioned in the Shulchan Aruch76 as well.

The Gemara77 discusses two possible ways of understanding the Mishnah, which did not address what kind of eating is prohibited and to which Minchah it is referring.78 (The Mishnah also did not discuss what aspects of the other activities are prohibited.79) There are two different zemanim for Minchah.80 Minchah Gedolah81 is about seven and a half hours into the day.82 Minchah Ketanah83 is nine and a half hours into the day.84

One opinion holds that one may not have a large meal such as a wedding seudah, bris milah meal,85 or pidyon haben86 close to the time of Minchah Gedolah. A small, regular meal87 is allowed. Others hold that even a small meal is not allowed,88 while some do not even allow a small meal close to the time of Minchah Ketanah.89

The Shulchan Aruch90 rules that it is forbidden to eat even a small meal close to Minchah Gedolah if one has not yet davened.91

The Rema92 rules that one may eat a large meal near the time of Minchah Gedolah but only a small meal near the time of Minchah Ketanah. (This is because one will be reminded to daven — see below.)93 One should be stringent and not eat a large meal close to Minchah Gedolah (see below).94 A small meal near Minchah Gedolah is permitted.

If one began any of the above activities within a half hour of Minchah Gedolah or Minchah Ketanah,95 he does not have to stop to daven,96 as long as there is still time in the day to daven.97 If he reaches the point where there would be no time to daven,98 he must stop right away99 and daven.100

Many are lenient in regard to eating close to Minchah based on the fact that there was a custom to have a shamash call people to come to shul so they would not forget.101 This heter would only apply to a small meal near102 Minchah Ketanah.103

The above heter only applies if one actually davens in shul,104 and only if he leaves as soon as he is summoned. Otherwise, it has no value.105 The reality today is that we do not have a shamash call people to shul and the heter should not apply.106 The Aruch Hashulchan107 says that the Gemara only prohibited eating close to Minchah Ketanah because it held that the time for Minchah is only until plag haminchah, which is about one and a quarter hours before shekiah. We hold like the majority opinion that the end of the time to daven Minchah is when it gets dark. Therefore, there are no restrictions until close to nightfall.

Many poskim say that we are lenient today since we are used to davening in a shul and there is no concern that one might forget to daven. One who does not daven with a minyan would be required to daven first if he wishes to eat within a half hour of Minchah Ketanah.108 However, since we are davening alone the minyan leniency would not work and we need to come up with a different leniency in order to permit eating.

There are many places in halachah where we have the concept of shomer109 —someone to watch and make sure one davens.110 Some poskim say that if one has a shomer who will remind him to daven then he may eat a small meal111 even within a half hour of Minchah Ketanah.112 For example, if one’s wife is eating with him and she will remind him to daven, then he may eat.113 114

The poskim discuss whether setting an alarm clock would serve the same purpose as a shomer to remind someone to stop eating and refrain from doing other activities when the time for Minchah Ketanah arrives.115 It seems that this suffices only if one has a tendency to act once the alarm goes off and not “snooze” it.116

The above discussion in regards to eating applies to eating before Maariv as well.

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Krias Shema

If one started a meal121 within a half hour of Krias Shema, he should stop right away122 and say it without the brachos (if he had no heter, see below). After the meal, he should recite Krias Shema with the brachos.123 The reason for this is that Krias Shema may be recited all night, so one may be negligent and forget.124

When one is davening at a set time in shul, making zeman Krias Shema can be easy. However, when davening alone people may tend to daven later than usual since they do not have to go to shul. One must be careful to daven within the time frame when Krias Shema is said, which will be discussed below.

The proper time for reciting Krias Shema and its accompanying brachos125 is the time when one can recognize a casual acquaintance126 from four amos away (misheyakir).127 In a case of pressing need (e.g., if one has to travel)128 one may say Krias Shema and the brachos from alos hashachar.129 One who recites it after alos hashachar when there is no pressing need is yotzei bedi’eved.130 Others say that this dispensation is only available once a month, but if one does this too often he has to repeat Krias Shema with the brachos. If one frequently finds himself in a pressing situation (such as businessmen during the winter months), he may rely on this even on a daily basis.131

Men and Women in Same Room

There is no issue with men and women of the same family davening in the same room. The issue of having a mechitzah only applies in a shul. However, homes are not meant for davening, and therefore, have no requirement for a mechitzah. This is even if one would daven there each day.

Times for Davening

When one is davening with a minyan in shul, he knows the set times for davening and chooses which minyan to daven with. When one is home he can choose what time to daven. However, each tefillah has its own unique halachos that apply to the time when the tefillos can be davened.

Shacharis

The preferred132 time for Shacharis (Shemoneh Esrei)133 is at netz hachamah (sunrise),134 but one who davened after alos hashachar (dawn, which is seventy-two minutes before netz hachamah)135 was yotzei136 b’dieved.137 However, Krias Shema and the berachos of Krias Shema must be delayed until later.138

Since one is davening alone, he should daven vasikin if possible since it has a greater impact.139 However, if it will affect his daily schedule or he needs extra sleep he can daven when he normally would.140

Maariv

There is a machlokes Rishonim regarding the latest time one may daven Maariv (Krias Shema of Arvis). Some say one may daven until chatzos,141 while others say one may daven until alos hashachar.142 Many poskim say one should daven before chatzos and that one who davened afterwards was only yotzei bedi’eved.143 Others say that davening after chatzos (until alos hashachar) is permitted even l’chatchilah.144 Based on this opinion, many are not makpid to daven before chatzos.145 Nonetheless, one should ideally daven before chatzos unless he is in a situation where this is not possible.146 One who plans on davening Maariv after chatzos should still say Krias Shema (without the accompanying brachos) before chatzos.147

If one is davening alone, the best time to daven is after tzeis hakochavim and not earlier.148

V’hu Rachum of Maariv

If one wishes he may say the V’hu Rachum said before Maariv during the week.149

Lecha Dodi

When saying Lecha Dodi, one should turn toward the door even when he is alone.150

Vayechulu

When one is alone and cannot say Vayechulu with a minyan, does he have to find someone else to say it with him?151

The pesukim of Vayechulu are recited three times on Friday night: once during Shemoneh Esrei,152 once after Shemoneh Esrei,153 and once during Kiddush.154

The Tur155 says that even when one is davening alone he recites Vayechulu in Shemoneh Esrei.

Vayechulu is said in a loud voice and while standing.156 Some mention that since the pesukim of Vayechulu bear witness to the fact that Hashem created the world, it is not said when there aren’t at least two people to say it. Therefore, if one is alone and he does not have another person to say it with, it should not be said.157 Others say that one can say Vayechulu as he would read it from the Torah with the trup, and not because one is saying it as testimony that Hashem created the world.158

The Mishnah Berurah159 says one should lechatchilah say Vayechulu with two people.160 The Chazon Ish161 comments that one does not have to look for another person to say Vayechulu with, and standing is not required either. The opinion of the Ohr L’tzion162 is that one does not have to look for another person after Shemoneh Esrei in order to recite Vayechulu.

Birkas Me’ein Sheva

The Shulchan Aruch163 says that one davening alone does not say Birkas Me’ein Sheva. However, the Rema164 says that one can say it alone without the brachah. Therefore, one who wishes to say it alone should start from Magen Avos until Zecher l’maaseh Bereishis.165

The Taz166 mentions that this brachah is only said in a place that is set aside for davening.167

Therefore, it seems that one does not say this when davening alone at home.

Saying Shalom Aleichem

When men come home from shul they are escorted by two malachim. When one does not go to shul because he is sick, Harav Moshe Feinstein, zt”l, said that Hashem will still send the angels to escort him. The same is true in this situation and one should say Shalom Aleichem on Friday night.168

Missing Krias HaTorah

The poskim discuss whether krias haTorah is an obligation for the tzibbur169 or the individual.170 Some say that on Monday and Thursday it is an obligation for the tzibbur, and on Shabbos it is an obligation for the individual.171

However, what happens if one is not able hear leining because the shuls are closed in his city? Does he have to read the parshah with a Chumash? The Ketzos Hashulchan 172 says one should read it in a Chumash. This is the opinion of the Rav Poalim as well.173 The custom, however, is that one does not read it from a Chumash.174

In our current situation, we may be davening alone on Shabbos for several weeks. This means that we will miss krias haTorah. How do we make up the missed leining?

The Rema175 says that if the entire tzibbur missed one week of leining, they should read the parshah the next week, in addition to that weeks parshah. If they have the ability to read the parshah at Minchah they should call up seven people.176 However, if Shabbos passed they do not make up that week’s leining on Monday or Thursday.177

If many weeks were missed, the Mishnah Berurah178 holds that one only makes up the last parshah that was missed. Others are stringent and say one must lein all of the parshiyos.179 However, this is not the custom.180 The Aruch Hashulchan181 says that one should make up many weeks of leining.

Some hold that one should not make up parshiyos that span different sefarim, such as parshiyos Pekudei and Vayikra.182 However, this is not the custom if one holds that multiple weeks of missed leining have to be made up.183

The Mishnah Berurah184 says that in a place where there is no sefer Torah, one may read from a Chumash so the concept of reading the parshash is not forgotten.

However, when one is alone without a minyan, reviewing the parshah as one does for shnayim mikra would suffice.185

Some mention that one should read the haftorah to himself as well.186

Yizkor

If one is alone for Yizkor and does not go to shul, he may recite it since a minyan is not required for Yizkor.187

Yekum Purkan

On Shabbos, we say two Yekum Purkans. However, when davening alone one does not say any of them.188 These tefillos are in Aramaic and the angels do not wish to bring these tefillos up to Hashem since they view Aramaic as a deformed version of lashon hakodesh.

Bentching Rosh Chodesh

One should say Birkas Hachodesh even without a minyan. It’s not necessary to know when the molid will be, but one does have to know when Rosh Chodesh will be.189

Av Harachamim

One who is davening alone may recite Av Harachamim.190

Mussaf

There is a discussion in the Gemara191 whether one is allowed to daven Mussaf alone or only with a tzibbur. The Shulchan Aruch192 says that Mussaf can be davened even when one is alone.

Minchah on Shabbos

V’ani sefilasi is said even though there is no leining when one is at home.193

Avinu Malkeinu

One is allowed to say Avinu Malkeinu without a minyan.194 Harav Herschel Schachter, shlita, mentions that during these trying times we should say Avinu Malkeinu when we daven at home except for Minchah on Erev Shabbos.195

Saying Kiddush Levanah Alone

There is a mitzvah to say kiddush levanah with a tzibbur because of “Berov am hadras melech.”196 If this is not possible it may be recited alone.197

Hallel on Rosh Chodesh

There are many different views regarding the recitation of a berachah before Hallel on Rosh Chodesh.198 The opinion of the Shulchan Aruch199 is that one who is reading Hallel alone (or with a tzibbur) does not recite a berachah. Since Hallel on Rosh Chodesh is a custom and not a halachah, no berachah is recited on a custom.200 The opinion of the Rema201 is that a berachah is recited whether one is alone or with a tzibbur. Those who hold that a berachah is recited do so because we find in some places that we recite a berachah on a custom.202

The Aruch Hashulchan203 mentions that if one is davening alone he does not say Hodu L’Shem after Yomar Yisrael. If one is davening with two others he may say it and others can say Hodu L’Shem afterwards.

Megillas Eichah

One is allowed to read Megillas Eichah alone.204

1 The author would like to thank a dear friend and colleague, Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz, for his shiur on this topic. Some of the material in this article is based on this shiur. In addition, sefer Hayachid V’hilchosav, dedicated to the halachos of one who is alone, was a great asset to this topic.

2 10a; see Rashi, Berachos 25a, “aval”; Rambam, Hilchos Tefillah 5:5; Ba’al Haturim, Bereishis 25:1-2; Shulchan Aruch 91:2, 5. Refer to Pele Yoetz, “levishah,” page 365.

3 Amos 4:12.

4 Rambam, ibid.; Tur 91; Tiferes Yisrael, Shabbos 23; Shulchan Aruch Harav 5; Chayei Adam 22:8; Ben Ish Chai, Yisro 1:15; Aruch Hashulchan 91:5; Kaf Hachaim 22; Yaskil Avdi 7:10:5. The Igros Moshe, Y.D. 3:68:4, says if one davened barefoot it is an acceptable tefillah.

5 Refer to Magen Avraham 91:5; Be’er Heitiv 5; Chayei Adam ibid.; Mishnah Berurah 12; Kaf Hachaim 22; Avnei Yashpei, Tefillah, page 51, footnote 9; Rivevos Ephraim 5:106; Ishei Yisrael, page 88. See Asher Chanan 6-7:3.

6 Refer to Hillel Omer 29; Mishnah Berurah 55:96; Miyum Hahalachah 3:26; Halichos Shlomo, Tefillah 2:15; Avnei Yashpei ibid., footnote 2; Siach Tefillah 3:6:9, page 72; see Yechaveh Da’as 4:8.

7 Yechaveh Da’as ibid.; Lekach Hakemach Hachadash 91, footnote 9; Hatefillah V’hilchoseha 5:4; Az Nidberu 2:55:4.

8 6b. See Yerushalmi, Maseches Berachos 4:4. Refer to Rif, page 6.

9 Refer to Yisa Berachah, pages 29-34 on this.

10 Refer to Yisa Berachah, pages 1-2.

11 O.C. 90:19.

12 Rosh, Maseches Berachos 1:7; Rambam, Hilchos Tefillah 5:6; Chayei Adam 22:3; Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 12:10; Chesed L’alafim 90:9; see Tzitz Eliezer 15:54.

13 7b.

14 Page 97.

15 Magen Avraham 90:33; Elyah Rabbah 22; Mishnah Berurah 59; Aruch Hashulchan 23; Kaf Hachaim 118.

16 Shevet Hakehasi 6:82.

17 Radvaz 106; Be’er Heitiv 90:30; Mishnah Berurah 70. The Yabia Omer, Y.D. 4:35:3, says that since davening takes place in a beis avel the mirrors are covered. If no davening takes place there, one does not have to cover the mirrors (ibid.). See Miyum Hahalachah 2:31.

18 Mishnah Berurah 90:71; Aruch Hashulchan 28.

19 Harav Yisroel Belsky, zt”l; see Orchos Rabbeinu 1, page 57, 184.

20 Ohr L’tzion, ibid. Davening opposite a glass frame with the words “Shivisi Hashem” is permitted. Since one is used to seeing it, he will still be able to concentrate (Shevet Halevi 9:21:1).

21 Shulchan Aruch Harav 90:22. See Kaf Hachaim (Palagi) 15:9; Ben Ish Chai, Yisro 1:14, and Ohr L’tzion 2:7:11, which argue. Refer to Daas Torah 90:23.

22 Olas Yitzchak 2:41; Rivevos Ephraim 8:103; see Orchos Rabbeinu 1, page 57, 185.

23

24 Shulchan Aruch 90:23.

25 See Mishnah Berurah 90:70.

26 101:4.

27 Ibid.

28 51:7.

29 51:1.

30 Ibid.

31

32 Ateres Zekeinim 53.

33 59:3.

34 59:3.

35 59:11.

36 Mishnah Berurah 13.

37 Teshuvos V’hanhagos 2:46.

38 Beis Yosef 61; Shulchan Aruch 61:3.

39 61:3.

40 Shulchan Aruch 101:2.

41 The chazzan should wait until the time it takes to walk four amos (Rema 123:2; Biur Halachah, “v’hashatz”; see Magen Avraham 7).

42 Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 18:14; Aruch Hashulchan 123:3; Kaf Hachaim 11.

43 Refer to Sha’arei Teshuvah 5 and Mishnah Berurah 9, who say that one who finished Shemoneh Esrei as the tzibbur is about to start Kedushah may go to his place (Mishnah Berurah, ibid.; see Aruch Hashulchan 4, who says that one should wait until the time it takes to walk four amos before returning to his place).

44 Shulchan Aruch 123:2; Mishnah Berurah 12. Many are not careful with this halachah, and it is unclear why this is so (refer to Piskei Teshuvos 123:2). When piyutim are said, one may return to his place at the onset of chazaras hashatz (Magen Avraham 6; Mishnah Berurah 10; Aruch Hashulchan 3).

45 Aruch Hashulchan 123:3.

46 Halichos Shlomo, Tefillah 13:12.

47 Yoma 53b; refer to Mishnah Berurah 123:7; Aruch Hashulchan 3.

48 Mishnah Berurah 123:11.

49 Refer to Kaf Hachaim 131:20; Halachah Berurah 131, footnote 8.

50 Kesher Hagadol 19:9; Igros Moshe, Y.D. 3:21; Minchas Elazar 4:22; Halachah Berurah 131:footnote 4.

51 Rema 131:2; Shulchan Aruch Harav 3; Aruch Hashulchan 10; Shulchan Hatohar (Karmarna) 131:8; Shulchan Shlomo 131:2. The Aruch Hashulchan, ibid., says the rooms around the shul have the same din as a shul.

52 Birchei Yosef 131:1; Igros Moshe, O.C. 5:20:5; Avnei Yushfei 3:10; Orchos Rabbeinu 1, page 67:9; Teshuvos V’hanhagos 2:79; Katzei Hamateh 581:51; see B’mechitzas Rabbeinu, page 52. For those who say a sefer helps, many siddurim also help for this purpose (Harav Yisroel Belsky, zt”l; see Avnei Yushfei, ibid., Sheilas Rav 2:11:12). One sefer is enough (Sheilas Rav 2:11:11).

53 Harav Yisroel Belsky, zt”l; see Elya Rabbah 131:5; Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 22:4, Mishnah Berurah 11 is not machria, Kaf Hachaim 45, Halachah Berurah 131:23, Beis Baruch 32:171, Siach Tefillah, page 206, Beis Avi 4:85, Vayehi Binso’a, page 69:1.

54 Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 22:4, Avodas Ephraim 1, page 170.

55 Ketzos Hashulchan 24:4, Ir Hakodesh V’hamikdash 3:25:page 341:8; Igros Moshe, Y.D. 3:129:2; Beis Baruch 32:170; Ishei Yisrael 25, footnote 32 quoting the opinion of Harav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach, zt”l, V’aleihu Lo Yeibol 1, page 96, see ibid page 398.

56 Refer to Halichos Shlomo Tefillah 11, footnote 37.

57 Minhagei Eretz Yisrael, page 49, footnote 3; Teshuvos V’hanhagos 2:79; Siach Tefillah, pages 206-207; see Teshuvos V’hanhagos 4:41, who says the custom is in all of Yerushalayim.

58 Shulchan Aruch 134:1.

59 131:20; Rivevos Ephraim 6:61.

60 Opinion of Harav Moshe Heinemann, shlit”a, as mentioned in a special webinar about the coronavirus.

61 Ishei Yisrael 26, footnote 7.

62 132:3.

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68

69 Shabbos 9b.

70 This is a half hour before Minchah (Beis Yosef 232; Magen Avraham 4; Mishnah Berurah 7).

71 See Magen Avraham 232:5; Mishnah Berurah 8, 21; Aruch Hashulchan 8-9.

72 Magen Avraham 232:6; Mishnah Berurah 9; 21; Aruch Hashulchan, ibid.

73 Brachos 28b.

74 See Magen Avraham 232:7.

75 Shabbos 9b; Rashi, Shabbos, ibid., “ad” and “lo”; Magen Avraham 8.

76 O.C. 232:2.

77 Shabbos, ibid.

78 Mishnah Berurah 232:5.

79 Ibid.

80 Refer to Yechaveh Da’as 4:19.

81 Shabbos 9b.

82 Rashi, Maseches Shabbos, ibid.

83 Shabbos, ibid.

84 Magen Avraham 232:4; Mishnah Berurah 7. See Shulchan Aruch 233:1.

85 Mishnah Berurah 232:11.

86 Ibid 24.

87 Ibid 11.

88 Shabbos 9b; Tosafos, “b’taspores”; Rosh, Shabbos 1:18; Beis Yosef 232; Shulchan Aruch 232:2. Refer to Aruch Hashulchan 11, who says that this opinion is not acceptable. See Beis Yosef 232, quoting the opinion of the Rif. See Rambam, Hilchos Tefillah 6:5. Refer to Mishnah Berurah 5. See Aruch Hashulchan 12.

89 See Beis Yosef 232, quoting the opinion of Rabbeinu Tam.

90 O.C. 232:2.

91 Refer to Ohr L’tzion 2:15:1, who says that the custom is to be lenient.

92 232:2.

93 The Kaf Hachaim 232:34 says this is the minhag ha’olam (even for Sephardim). Nonetheless, if one is stringent, he will have berachah (ibid.).

94 This is even with a shamash telling one to go to shul, since if one eats a large meal he may become drunk (Mishnah Berurah 232:30).

95 Tosafos, Brachos 28b, “keivan”; Taz 232:3; Aruch Hashulchan 20.

96 Shabbos 9b; Tosafos, “v’im”; Rosh 1:18; Beis Yosef 232.

97 Rosh ibid.; Shulchan Aruch 232:2; Rema; Mishnah Berurah 13, 15 and 16.

98 Aruch Hashulchan 232:20.

99 Even if there is a lot of time left to the day (Magen Avraham 232:11).

100 Shulchan Aruch 232:2.

101 232:2; see Magen Avraham 8.

102 Even after Minchah Ketanah as well (Aruch Hashulchan 14; see Mishnah Berurah 232:26; Shevus Yitzchak 2:23, pages 281-282).

103 Mishnah Berurah 232:29.

104 Magen Avraham 232:8; Mishnah Berurah 28. See Shevus Yitzchak 2:23, pages 285-286.

105 Mishnah Berurah 232:29.

106 Aruch Hashulchan 232:15; Beis Baruch 33:17.

107 232:15.

108 Aruch Hashulchan 232:16; Kaf Hachaim 29, 34; Igros Moshe, O.C. 4:99:1; Ohr L’tzion 2:15:1; Toras Hayeshivah 5:5; Shemiras Shabbos K’hilchasah 56:12; Beis Avi 4:20. See Shevus Yitzchak 2:23:6.

109 Refer to Shevus Yitzchak 2:23, pages 286-287.

110 For a discussion on this, see Sukkah 26a; Gittin 28b; Shulchan Aruch, O.C. 275:2-3; Shulchan Aruch Harav 275:4; Mishnah Berurah 89:34, 235:17, 489:23, and 692:16.

111 Refer to Az Nidberu 9:45.

112 Refer to Ketzos Hashulchan 26, Badei 15; B’tzeil Hachachmah 3:88, 93; Ohr L’tzion 2:15:1; Beis Baruch 33:18.

113 Ohr L’tzion 2:15:1.

114

115 Opinion of Harav Moshe Heinemann, shlit”a, as mentioned in a special webinar about the coronavirus. Refer to Chayei Moshe 232; Shevus Yitzchak 2:23, pages 287-288.

116 Ohr L’tzion 2:15:1; Shevus Yitzchak 2:23, page 287, quoting the opinion of Harav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach, zt”l; Ashrei Ha’ish, O.C. 1, page 274, 5.

117

118

119

120

121 This would apply to other actions as well (Biur Halachah, “v’im”).

122 Mishnah Berurah 21.

123 Shulchan Aruch 235:2.

124 Magen Avraham 7.

125 Mishnah Berurah 58:1.

126 Refer to ibid. 58:2.

127 Shulchan Aruch 58:1.

128 Mishnah Berurah 58:13.

129 Shulchan Aruch 58:3. Refer to Biur Halachah 58, “v’mi.”

130 Shulchan Aruch 58:4.

131 Mishnah Berurah 58:19.

132 Biur Halachah, “yotzei.”

133 Mishnah Berurah 4.

134 Tosafos, Maseches Berachos 31a, “avuha,” Shulchan Aruch 89:1. Refer to Mishnah Berurah 89:1; Aruch Hashulchan 11-12. Refer to Rashi, Maseches Berachos, “havei.”

135 Refer to Yechaveh Daas 2:8, who brings all the opinions on this issue. See also Piskei Teshuvos 89:2 in great depth. See Biur Halachah 58, “v’im,” and m’shialeh.”

136 Shulchan Aruch 89:1. Refer to Magen Avraham 3.

137 Rambam, Hilchos Tefillah 3:4, Shulchan Aruch 89:1, Mishnah Berurah 4; Yechaveh Daas 2:8. One who davens before neitz hachamah should not be rebuked (Biur Halachah 89, “yotzei”).

138 Shulchan Aruch 89:8.

139 Opinion of Harav Shmuel Kamenetsky, shlit”a.

140 Opinion of Harav Moshe Heinemann, shlit”a, as mentioned in a special webinar about the coronavirus.

141 Refer to Brachos 2a; 8b; Divrei Chamudos 1:43; Tur 235; Shulchan Aruch 3; Levush 3; Elyah Rabbah 10; Mishnah Berurah 108:15; Biur Halachah 235, “v’zmanah.” The main time for Maariv is tzeis hakochavim (Levush 3; Pri Megadim, E.A. 9; Chayei Adam 68:6; Halichos Shlomo Tefillah, page 17, footnote 62; see Piskei Teshuvos 235, footnote 64). Some say one is allowed to start before chatzos even if he finishes after chatzos (Eishel Avraham [Butchatch], tanina 235).

142 Brachos ibid.; Tur 235; Mishnah Berurah 28.

143 Refer to Beis Yosef 235; Rambam, Hilchos Krias Shema 1:9; Shulchan Aruch 2; Rivevos Ephraim 5:37:11 and 8:61.

144 Tur 235; Beis Yosef; Pri Megadim, M.Z. 108:3; Aruch Hashulchan 235:18.

145 Aruch Hashulchan 235:18.

146 Refer to Rosh, Brachos 1:9; Bach 235; Magen Avraham 10; Sha’arei Teshuvah 7; Ma’amar Mordechai 8; Mishnah Berurah 29; Biur Halachah, ibid.; Ma’adanei Yom Tov 1:29.

147 Harav Yisroel Belsky, zt”l; see Pri Megadim, M.Z. 108:3; Ketzos Hashulchan 27, Badei 13, page 78b; Doleh U’mashkeh, footnote 375; Yisrael V’hazmanim 15:7, page 260; She’eilas Rav, page 303, 16. Refer to Avnei Yashpei 11, footnote 14 and Doleh U’mashkeh, page 337, which maintain that both Shemoneh Esrei and Krias Shema must be said before chatzos. See Tzlach, Berachos 26b, “sheharei eivarim.”

148 Opinion of Harav Moshe Heinemann, shlit”a, as mentioned in a special webinar about the coronavirus.

149 Opinion of Harav Moshe Heinemann, shlit”a, as mentioned in a special webinar about the coronavirus.

150 Ishei Yisrael 36, footnote 32.

151 For a nice discussion on this topic, refer to Higyonei Haparshah Bereishis, pages 56-62.

152 Shulchan Aruch 268:1.

153 Ibid:7.

154 Kol Bo 35; Tur 271. See Kaf Hachaim 268:3, 34.

155 268. Refer to Maseches Shabbos 119b.

156 Shulchan Aruch 268:7; Aruch Hashulchan 15.

157 Mishnah Berurah 19.

158 Taz 5; Mishnah Berurah 19; Aruch Hashulchan 15.

159 19.

160 See Shevet Hakehasi 5:340.

161 O.C. 38:10. See Shearim Metzuyanim B’halachah on Maseches Shabbos 119b.

162 2:19:4.

163 268:8.

164 268:8.

165 Mishnah Berurah 21.

166 268:8. See Birkei Yosef 10.

167 The Shulchan Aruch Harav (268:15) says this means that a place was set aside for at least a few weeks. This is also mentioned in Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 76:7. However, the Mishnah Berurah (24) says this means a few days. See Zechor L’Avraham 5764, pages 410-416. Refer to Mishneh Sachir 91 regarding those who daven in shul just for Minchah and Maariv. Some mention that it has to be a set place for davening all three tefillos (Eishel Avraham [Butchatch] 268).

168 Opinion of Harav Moshe Heinemann, shlit”a, as mentioned in a special webinar about the coronavirus.

169 Refer to Levush 146:3; Chayei Adam 31:11; Biur Halachah 135:14, “ein;” Aruch Hashulchan 69:14, Teshuvos V’hanhagos 1:148; Yabea Omer 7:9; Orchos Rabbeinu 3:215:page 44, Minchas Shlomo 2:4:15, Tzitz Eliezer 18:5. Mashgichim often travel to overlook a production where there is no minyan (or krias haTorah). Refer to Kovetz Ohr Yisrael 46:pages 75-88 and Divrei Shalom 1:68 as to whether this is permitted. Refer to Halichos Shlomo Tefillah 1:5:4, Shevet HaLevi 6:21:3, and Tefillah K’hilchasah 8:9 as to whether one is permitted to do so for leisure or parnassah. See Maadanei Yom Tov 1, pages 215-216.

170 Harav Yisroel Belsky, zt”l; see Biur Halachah 146, “v’yeish,” Igros Moshe, O.C. 4:40:4; Lev Avraham 1:26; Rivevos Ephraim 4:77:1; Har Tzvi 1:66; Halichos Shlomo Tefillah 12:1; see ibid., Meluyim 17, pages 350-351, Likras Shabbos 2:page 112:footnote 3, Vayivarech Dovid 1:27. Many say that one should do whatever it takes not to miss out on any words of the leining (refer to Halichos Shlomo Tefillah 12:3, Yabea Omer 8:14, see Otzros Yosef 7:2:3). One should try to get an aliyah once a month (Siddur Yaavetz page 320:20; Ben Ish Chai Toldos 2:20, Zera Yaakov 5, page 103). Whether the mitzvah of leining is to read or hear it, see Maadanei Yom Tov 1, pages 213-214. One may listen to leining before he davens (opinion of Harav Elyashiv, zt”l, quoted in Ashrei Ha’ish O.C. 1, page 135:11).

171 Vayivarech Dovid, ibid.

172 25:14.

173 Y.D. 52.

174 Yabea Omer, Y.D. 4:31:3.

175 135:2.

176 Mishnah Berurah, 135:5.

177 Mishnah Berurah, ibid.

178 135:6.

179 Ibid.

180 Ibid.

181 135:6.

182 Mishnah Berurah 135:7.

183 Aruch Hashulchan 135:6.

184 143:9.

185 Opinion of Harav Shmuel Kamenetsky, shlit”a. See opinion of Harav Chaim Kanievsky, shlita, quoted in Ishei Yisrael, page 779, 305.

186 Opinion of Harav Shmuel Kamenetsky, shlit”a; opinion of Harav Moshe Heinemann, shlit”a, as mentioned in a special webinar about the coronavirus. For a discussion on this, see Hameor 463, pages 80-82.

187 Gesher Hachaim 31:2; Betzel Hachochmah 4:53.

188 Mishnah Berurah 101:19. See Ishei Yisrael 36:68, footnote 160.

189 Tefillah K’hilchasah 22:1; Nishmas Shabbos 2:308; opinion of Harav Moshe Heinemann, shlit”a, as mentioned in a special webinar about the coronavirus.

190 Sheilas Rav 1, page 325.

191 Maseches Brachos 31a.

192 286:2.

193 Mishnah Berurah 292:2; Aruch Hashulchan 1; opinion of Harav Shmuel Kamenetsky, shlit”a, as mentioned in a special webinar about the coronavirus.

194 Matei Ephraim 584:14.

195 As mentioned by Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz. The opinion of Harav Moshe Heinemann, shlit”a, as mentioned in a special webinar about the coronavirus is that it is not necessary to say it.

196 Meor U’iketziah 229; Biur Halachah, “e’leh,” Teshuvos V’hanhagos 1:205; Kiddush Levanah, pages 103-104.

197 Pri Chadash 426:1; Biur Halachah, ibid.; see Chai Adam 68:11.

198 Refer to Tur 422, Beis Yosef. There is no Shehechiyanu recited on Hallel even though we say it once a month (when there is no Yom Tov). (Elya Rabbah 422:10 says the reason is because some months are less than thirty days.)

199 422:2. This is the custom of the Sefardim (Yechaveh Da’as 4:31; M’ein Omer 2, pages 222-223:2; see Kaf Hachaim 422:35). One who has the custom not to recite the berachah and moves to a place which does not recite the beracha he should adopt the custom of the place where he lives now (Yechaveh Daas 4:31).

200 Maseches Sukkah 44b; Tosafos, Maseches Taanis 28b, “omar”; Rambam, Hilchos Berachos 11:16; Hilchos Chanukah 3:7; Mishnah Berurah 14.

201 422:2; see Sefer Hamanhig, Hilchos Hallel, page 252, Tosafos, Maseches Brachos 44b “kan.”

202 Tosafos, Maseches Brachos 14a, “yamim,” Maseches Taanis 28b, “amar;” Ha’gahos Maimonios, Hilchos Chanukah 3:7; Mishnah Berurah 15; Shaar Hatzion 13; Aruch Hashulchan 7.

203 422:9.

204 Mishnah Berurah 559:5. However, if one is reading it alone no berachah is recited (Ishei Yisrael 44:31).

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